Organic Edge Routing

OrganicEdgeRouter routes edges organically to ensure that they do not overlap nodes and that they keep a specifiable minimal distance to the nodes. It is especially well suited for non-orthogonal, organic or cyclic layout styles.

The algorithm is based on a force directed layout paradigm. Nodes act as repulsive forces on edges in order to guarantee a certain minimal distance between nodes and edges. Edges tend to contract themselves. Using simulated annealing, this finally leads to edge layouts that are calculated for each edge separately.


This algorithm will only work correctly if there is enough room between each pair of nodes in the graph. In particular, there should be a distance of at least twice the minimal distance (see below) between any two nodes.

In order to ensure that these preconditions are met, the technique described below can be used.

Figure 10.84. Sample edge routings produced with OrganicEdgeRouter

Sample edge routings produced with OrganicEdgeRouter
Sample edge routings produced with OrganicEdgeRouter
Postprocessing edge routing of an organically laid out tree. Automatic edge routing of a hand-laid-out graph structure.

Routing Options

By default, OrganicEdgeRouter reroutes all edges of a given graph. When only a subset of the edges should be routed, a data provider holding the selection state for each edge is looked up. The data provider is expected to be registered with the graph using the RouteEdgeDpKey look-up key.

Minimal Distance
double MinimalDistance { get; set; }

This specifies the minimal allowed distance between nodes and edges.

Use Existing Bends
bool UsingBends { get; set; }

This option specifies whether existing bends should be used as an initial solution for the new routing.

Route Only Necessary
bool RoutingAll { get; set; }

If this option is enabled, all edges are routed. By default, this option is disabled and only edges that violate the minimal distance criterion are rerouted.

Allow Edge Overlaps
bool EdgeNodeOverlapAllowed { get; set; }

This option specifies whether edges are allowed to overlap with nodes. Enabling this option often improves the routing when nodes are not allowed to move (i.e., when using the node enlargement layout stage is not an option), and some distances between nodes do not comply with the algorithm's preconditions. Note that the minimal distance cannot always be maintained when using this option.

Enhancing the Routing Process

In order to ensure that the preconditions of OrganicEdgeRouter are met for arbitrary graphs, the routing process can be enhanced using specialized layout stages. In particular, the CreateNodeEnlargementStage method returns a layout stage that perfectly lends itself for usage in conjunction with logic that creates more space between the nodes of a graph. The code in Example 10.37, “Ensuring OrganicEdgeRouter's preconditions” presents this technique.

Example 10.37. Ensuring OrganicEdgeRouter's preconditions

OrganicEdgeRouter oer = new OrganicEdgeRouter();
ILayoutStage nodeEnlarger = oer.CreateNodeEnlargementStage();

CompositeLayoutStage cls = new CompositeLayoutStage();
cls.AppendStage(new BendConverter());
cls.AppendStage(new RemoveOverlapsLayoutStage(0.0));

oer.CoreLayouter = cls;

Supplemental Layout Data

Class OrganicEdgeRouter knows a number of data provider keys which are used to retrieve supplemental layout data for a graph's elements. The data is bound to the graph by means of a data provider which is registered using a given look-up key. Table 10.66, “Data provider look-up keys” lists all look-up keys that OrganicEdgeRouter tests during the layout process in order to query supplemental data.

Binding supplemental layout data to a graph is described in the section called “Providing Supplemental Layout Data”.

Table 10.66. Data provider look-up keys

Key Element Type Value Type Description
RouteEdgeDpKey edge bool For each edge a boolean value indicating whether the edge shall be considered for rerouting or not.

Tutorial Demo Code

The layout module class OrganicEdgeRouterModule.cs from the LayoutModulesWindow demo application presents the setup of class OrganicEdgeRouter in an application context.